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From the EH2R log book

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Dateline Resolute Bay 74 43 north 94 57 West

New generation sequences have exact times and or coordinates, meaning that bearings are extremely precise. There are 5 locations where the following pictures were taken. Three in Resolute Bay, 2 in Montreal. Montreal sequences are denoted, otherwise all other pictures are from Resolute Bay. Please note the records so far, lowest sunset ever filmed was in Resolute bay in 1987, lower than –4.4 degrees, 2nd place was in Resolute November 2002 at –3.3 degrees. Greatest number of Green flashes in one sunset observation was seen February 3 2003, several dozen were seen. To date no official Almanac nor sun tables explain nor acknowledge that many of the following events can exist.

Beginning 2005

February 2005

- New interpretation methods
- Sun not as bright as reflected light from clouds
- Sun hill lines very malleable



As with last year, there were clouds, or mist from open water, but the sun showed up 2 days earlier than official sunrise model.. The long night ended February 3 in the late morning…The station lapse rate was strong in the morning 9.6 C/m and weaker later 4.9 C/m.


I found the bottom sun image particularly nice, it is an inferior image, upside down, stretched out.


Unlike the previous picture, the bottom image shows a zone of darkness, as if profiling a hill or mountain. It is likely that the air conditions below the sun line are different causing this illusion….


Griffith Island, roughly 0.3 degrees above the camera, offers a unique perspective in studying the sun line at higher elevations, but in this instance at a distance of 17 Kilometers. As you can see, the shape and form is quite different than at sea level. There is less dense air , therefore less refraction by a significant factor, but oddly the sun set very near official sunset time.




The Island sun line is dimmer than the silver lining in the high cloud above, the lapse rate was significant that day , 7.9 C/100 m..



A play between hills proves how malleable the flat sun disk can be, it mimics the topography quite well. A thing to note is the persistently high tropopause, at about 9 Kilometers for months, unusually higher by a factor of 2.

More February 2005

- Hill series show influence of changing temperatures
- Remarkable high elevation refraction effects previously unknown
- Sighting of distant inversions not present above
- Warmer air having great sunset boosts


The cairn in the top picture is sitting on a hill 2.2 degrees above the camera, away by 3.2 Kilometers. The blue was seen visually on the other shots… At the end this blue turned a perfect upper sun rim green.


There was obvious a temperature difference between hill top and its air immediately above. This caused small but noticeable inversions and false horizons and hill line..


Gradually the air above got colder, while the heat generated by the hill kept warmer by –25 C air lasting a week caused likely a greater adiabatical lapse rate, causing interesting effects.


Now the air above the hill got truly colder, while the hill still was warmer, causing wondrous green flashes… The hill line below the first frame sun disk, was seen visually.

March 2005

- Hill and air having same temperature creates ordinary hill sunset
- Red ducts appear one by one creating another image of the sun
- Blue sunset horizons
- Double sunset with quadruple lines
- Curved upper sun lines


The hill is now cooling to ambiant air temperature, but on this sunset there was still a significant temperature difference. The splitting sun image was seen visually without the same details as given by the camera.


The temperature difference between air and hill is now exhausted, no image duplications was then possible. The extra images of the other days were not mirages, although they are called that way, they are images of the sun caused by ducting.


Rectangular March 7 sun was accompanied by lower sun duct images, apparently breaking through a veil of darkness created by the telescope filter.. There was no significant inversion above the camera location, although there was several inversions, at least 10, below the sun, which combined to form an amazing mirror image.


March 7 sunset ended with a Wegener blank strip made prominent by a zone of darkness right above the horizon. The true contiguous sun disappeared at the top of the dark strip, while other sun images appeared and disappeared. This sunset is absolutely fascinating because no significant inversion was measured above the camera. It means inversions may exist in small or large air masses away from one location. This also mean that we can identify them and also help define the air around a given location much more completely.


For the first time a noticeable inversion at the station was also seen afar, giving a large sunset boost at a much warmer temperature then just a few days ago. Previously I theorized that cold air was responsible for great sunset boosts, now this case clearly shows a greater boost than on many previous sunsets having much colder surface air. The idea, or the stance of forecasting future weather is now improved, the greater the sunset boost the more warm air is above , this warm air is very important.. Cold surface air is still prominent but alone it can’t help define Arctic Air masses…


Thin Clouds must be recognized in the background, nevertheless there were green flashes, captured as so because of filtering effect allowing the CCD a capture of truer colours.


Very odd looking sunset sequence was again captured through a vail of thin clouds. Taking differential refraction readings below the astronomical horizon here is tricky, even with a surface inversion lapse rate of 2.6 C/100 meters, there was from afar greater compressions. More inversions than measured at the station as well, proving the narrow range of a balloon sounding. The blue sky in the later background appears odd, thanks Andy, it is not red , this is not a CCD mistake, it is truly blue, a complete contradiction of Rayleigh scattering.


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As seen visually the red horizon vanished. Yet only the sun remains red.



A significant sunset with respect to the sun line. You can gradually see the horizon red to blue transition. Multiple inversion lines suggest a very complex horizon, not as measured again at the station. The top left first picture shows a sun lower limb cut off, indicating a very steep inversion from afar, about 4 times stronger then at the station.


A particularly interesting sunset, not because it didn't skim for long , but because clouds 60 nautical miles away cut it short. This means that the ray path hugs the horizon for at least this distance.


Double sunset with all the trimmings imaginable. Including multiple green flashes and very strange shapes, not strait , very curved at -1.39 degrees. The sun originally set over an Island 30 Nautical miles away. Only the sun line followed the top Island profile. It set with two red dots at each end only to reappear extremely complex, as a quadruple line, with apparent light waves intermixing, the most extraordinary features is the blue horizon with no bending as to mimic the Northern tip of the Island. This indicates very distant ducts, ending well West of the Island . Again inversions above the station were weak, not justifying any of these features. A double line vanished by over scattering and diffusion, it would have continued to be seen otherwise.


Again a late sunset, dissappeared by scattering of red, with waves cleary visible in the lower frames. The inversion at the station of 1.9 degrees per 100 meters is not steep enough to justify this event. A particular feature, more prominent this year, is those curved sun lines well above the horizon, this suggests that the air ducts can be curved.


Again a sunset in mid air, without ever touching the ice horizon, seems to be like aWegener effect, likely a blank strip, the sun usually disappears always the same way, with a trade mark sun line of particular shape. The other sun lines further above seem very complex.

April 2005

- Assymetrical green flash
- Return of the Ellipsoid sun
- The Lintel sun


I like the ajar green flash in the upper right frame. It is a product of a duct, more numerous can be found below. Clouds made this sunset in a partial one.


Multiple lines on a near rectangular sun, may be caused by prominent inversions distance to be determined.


The bent horizon was not mimicked by the sun, meaning no immediate inversions above bent land. Ellipsoid sun should be considered as a product of pure refraction, without interference from inversions.


Inversions in the upper left part play a role in distorting the sun image, unlike the previous day. The lintel sun is a product of top of the horizon inversion likely not too distant away.

MONTREAL summer 2005 sequences

Summer 2005

- Smog and heat
- Higher sunsets and Akhets
- Expanding sundisk


Montreal early June captures sharply contrast with last year. In particular June 2005 was much warmer than June 2004, Sunset times were more predictable in 2005. Smog was also more dominant due to steady air flowing from the Southwest. Capturing exact Ahkets was made very difficult. Lat year the sunset was 0.22 degrees lower , meaning colder air and greater refraction boosts.


Despite the clouds sunset was seen below them. Again sunset occurred at a higher elevation.


Differential refraction shots were compressed, showing still the definite presence of distant cold air well above the horizon. But this sunset was again earlier than last year at the same time, showing remarkable near ground heat, this is confirmed by the Ahket elevation.


Solstice sunset with again a more compresed then usual Ahket sun.


The brillance of the sun was unmistakably Arctic like, cold air from the Northwest cleared the air and made the sun extremely bright while at Ahket.


Warm air from the Southwest arrived along with a great deal of smog. The sunset happenned much earlier than last year along with most June sunsets so far.


Contrast June 22 sunset without a filter with June 24, red and weak, from smog, also note, cooler air and the 22nd squashed the sun more than the 24th. A good example of man made effects from pollution. Fore time immemorial sunsets appeared like the left one in Montreal, the red is strictly caused by scattering of all other sunlight colours.


A remarkable day of data was collected, namely with differential refraction readings "off the scale" , larger than all in the past (2003-2004) at all levels, insicating the extent of which near surface cold air aloft seems to have been erradicated. Smog was equally strong, missed the Ahket, even so, it was obviously much higher then preceding years as well.



After passage of a cold front, the sunset was remarkably brighter thanks to Northern pollution free air. In this case the sunset was comparable to last year at the same date, exception by 'normal' sunset elevation, while other 2005 summer days had warmer sunsets at higher elevations.


There seems to be two dominant features for the summer of 2005, higher Akhets and sunsets at higher elevations. An indication of near surface warmer air.