Home - Intro - Compare - Differ. Refraction - Discussion - Polarization - Terminator - Moon - Definitions - Cold vs Warm

Double Sunset - Data - Sunset Sequence - Homage - Sunrise - Last Line - Global Warming - Archives





EH2R discussion page, ideas about how to resolve Global Warming

issues while using archived Satellite Photos.




1. Instantaneous state of heat at the terminator

The science of EH2r is not merely limited to pictures and proofs, it has potentially rather large background in physics and mathematics. Once taken for granted, the calculations of sunrise and sunsets are no longer predictable within a fair degree of accuracy particularly in the Polar regions. This problem laid dormant because of sparse population needs and the apparent unimportance in exacting sunrise and sunset times. 19th and 20th century explorers largely failed to back up De Veers 1597 observations, most certainly because of reverence for Navigation Bessel modeled tables from Greenwhich, also because EH2r can’t be seen unless observed very closely at locations rich with horizon space. It is astounding that historical explorers didn’t appear to have observed and especially attempted to measure this phenomenon. Perhaps a good example when science not quite perfected, taken too literally, distorts and forces flawed notions on reality, where in such a case, the observer rejected what he was seeing in favor of what he is expected to see. But there is a possible explanation, Polarization of light within our circumpolar world.


There are problems with calculating exact sunrise and sunsets in the polar regions which are still unresolved, despite some serious efforts by very capable physicists and astronomers. It may be a matter of time before this science is perfected, we are, after all, merely pointing out the failings of the old system, a sure precursory act leading to a final more precise formulation.


Despite the failings of exact calculations, the need now turns to a world wide question; is there such a thing as Global Warming? The problem is simple and complex, greenhouse gases are released at an alarming rate, but their concentrations are still not very significant, at least for the proponents against the theory. Warming in the Arctic is quite real, especially in terms of summer ice coverage. In the Canadian Archipelago, there is growing speculation of the beginning of transcontinental shipping, from Asia to Europe and East North America, by way of the Northwest Passage. For the last 3 years, summer ice concentrations shrunk dramatically enough making this once upon a time navigation fantasy into a more than impossible reality. Being what it is, the Arctic has a small weak voice in international affairs, and this futuristic scenario may not have been heard by all who may have an impact on the future.


Anti-Global Warming advocates favorite counter argument is of course some form of cycle theory, be it from the sun or by some sort of Earth temperature cycle, this argument poses some serious challenges to the proponents of Global Warming, primarily because many influential people accept this side of the issue. Although many others argue that we have not measured the Earth’s temperature long enough in order to proclaim any reliable long term forecast. These debates are largely academic and pose no real value in terms of what is really going on. Global Warming should be measured as an instant cause from the effect of increasing greenhouse gases. If this was possible, there would be no place for conjecture, it should be a matter of simple linear interpretation, very much like reading the density of a liquid from a “refractometer”, there is no room for a debate in this case.


Viewing the Earth as a whole, is a difficult issue rendered easier by pinpointing the Earth’s terminator. As the Earth warms, the terminator near the poles will shift Southwards, this will induce a great change in daylight and twilight hours.


The extreme North light path , at the terminator’s edge, follows a course, not to my knowledge, precisely measured, but it is bent light, most likely destined for the stratosphere was it not for the Earth’s atmosphere dispersion properties. The very course the light path follows defines the air it penetrated exactly at the point of impact with the surface of the Earth. Depending on a definition of Atmosphere, EH2r light paths are extremely long, easily in excess of 700 kilometers of relatively dense air, the path is influenced by various air mediums , as the path gets closer to Earth it bends more according to greater air density. The uniform or jagged terminator suggests the state of the airmass towards the sun.


Average surface temperature readings give a good indication of trends, these measurements are limited to countless readings just above the surface, it does not indicate whether the atmosphere above is warming up. Shifting daily, the position of the terminator is a summation of all the dispersions encountered by light going through several density layers which are directly dependent on temperature and density. One terminator position is the equivalent of several thousand thermometer readings over a great distance. Finding one terminator point gives an instantaneous state of heat in the atmosphere above.


For some, clouds are the only serious limitation causing some concern over this method, yet moisture, water vapour, does not seem to influence refraction a great deal, it is a known insignificant player in the bending of light. The biggest concern is by far clouds, which literally block the light path, but again careful selection of satellite picture segments devoid of clouds is more than possible, especially if this is combined with surface observations and the usage of synchronous satellite picture wavelengths. Ice Crystals pose another potential limitation, there are at times fabulous ice crystal showers, causing great halos, occurring not necessarily in the lower layers, but several years of dim star observations have proven that ice crystals do not reduce weak star observations as well as clouds do, observing 5.2 magnitude stars is possible with more than 1000 meters of moist layers some consisting of ice crystals.


A proper year by year comparison of the terminator can be done at key times, when there is a brief window of clear air. This is mainly before the onset of Arctic haze, an aerosol based obstruction capable of imitating the appearance of clouds. Avoiding Arctic Haze would be essential, the proper time to measure the terminator in the Arctic may very well be between October and early April. After cleansing by summer rain, and before explosive massive photochemical reactions.


Mathematically, the problem of measuring the exact geometry of an EH2r light path is quite limited by the fact that there are no horizontal temperature and pressure profiles, many scientists from Bessel onwards have taken and relied on vertical atmospheric profiles, a convenient and well averaged feature. This is a mistake, horizontal profiles are not at all like vertical ones. This is the key flaw which assures complete miscalculations of proper sunset and sunrise times in the polar regions. January 10, 2002…